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Cardenia, Vladimiro; Rodriguez-Estrada, Maria Teresa; Lorenzini, Antonello; Bandini, Erika; Angeloni, Cristina; Hrelia, Silvana; Malaguti, Marco

The effect of broccoli extract (BE)-enriched diet was studied in order to evaluate its ability to counteract liver cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) induced by acute strenuous exercise in rats . Thirty-two female Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: control diet without exercise (C), BE-enriched diet without exercise (B), control diet with acute exhaustive exercise (S) and BE-enriched diet with acute exhaustive exercise (BS). The study lasted 45days and on the last day, rats of S and BS groups were forced to run until exhaustion on a treadmill. Glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) were determined in liver . Exhaustive exercise was clearly responsible for tissue damage, as evidenced by the increase of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) plasma activity in the S group. Moreover, the exercise protocol reduced CAT activity in liver , while it did not affect GST, GR and GPx. BE-enriched diet raised GST, GR and CAT activities in rats of BS group. The main COPs found were 7α-hydroxycholesterol, 7β-hydroxycholesterol, 7-ketocholesterol, cholestanetriol, 24-hydroxycholesterol and 27-hydroxycholesterol. The BE-enriched diet led to reduced cholesterol oxidation following exhaustive exercise; the highest level of COPs was found in the S group, whereas the BS rats showed the lowest amount. This study indicates that the BE-enriched diet increases antioxidant enzyme activities and exerts an antioxidant effect towards cholesterol oxidation in rat liver , suggesting the use of phytochemicals in the prevention of oxidative damage and in the modulation of the redox environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

A High Phosphorus Diet Affects Lipid Metabolism in Rat Liver : A DNA Microarray Analysis

Chun, Sunwoo; Bamba, Takeshi; Suyama, Tatsuya; Ishijima, Tomoko; Fukusaki, Eiichiro; Abe, Keiko; Nakai, Yuji

A high phosphorus (HP) diet causes disorders of renal function, bone metabolism, and vascular function. We previously demonstrated that DNA microarray analysis is an appropriate method to comprehensively evaluate the effects of a HP diet on kidney dysfunction such as calcification, fibrillization, and inflammation. We reported that type IIb sodium-dependent phosphate transporter is significantly up-regulated in this context. In the present study, we performed DNA microarray analysis to investigate the effects of a HP diet on the liver , which plays a pivotal role in energy metabolism. DNA microarray analysis was performed with total RNA isolated from the livers of rats fed a control diet (containing 0.3% phosphorus) or a HP diet (containing 1.2% phosphorus). Gene Ontology analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) revealed that the HP diet induced down-regulation of genes involved in hepatic amino acid catabolism and lipogenesis, while genes related to fatty acid β-oxidation process were up-regulated. Although genes related to fatty acid biosynthesis were down-regulated in HP diet-fed rats , genes important for the elongation and desaturation reactions of omega-3 and -6 fatty acids were up-regulated. Concentrations of hepatic arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid were increased in HP diet-fed rats . These essential fatty acids activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα), a transcription factor for fatty acid β-oxidation. Evaluation of the upstream regulators of DEGs using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis indicated that PPARα was activated in the livers of HP diet-fed rats . Furthermore, the serum concentration of fibroblast growth factor 21, a hormone secreted from the liver that promotes fatty acid utilization in adipose tissue as a PPARα target gene, was higher (p = 0.054) in HP diet-fed rats than in control diet-fed rats . These data suggest that a HP diet enhances energy expenditure through the utilization of free fatty acids

Effects of Composite Thickness on the Shear Bond Strength to Dentin

Richard B. Price , DDS, MS, MRCD(C), FDS RCS (Edin) • • Gorman Doyle , DDS, MS • • Darcy Murphy , B.Sc. •

Richard B. Price Gorman Doyle Darcy Murphy

The manufacturers of some condensable posterior composites claim that their products can be placed in bulk and light-cured in 5-mm-thick increments. This study compared the shear bond strengths of three composite resins when bonded to dentin in 2- and 5-mm-thick increments. Overall the bond strengths were adversely affected by the composite thickness (p < 0.0001). The shear bond strength of each composite tested was much lower when polymerized in a 5-mm increment than in a 2-mm increment of composite (p < 0.0005). The two condensable composites tested had a lower bond strength than the conventional composite when polymerized in a 5-mm bulk increment (p < 0.01).

MeSH Key Words: composite resins; dental bonding; dentin-bonding systems

MeSH Key Words:

© J Can Dent Assoc 2000; 66:35-9 This article has been peer reviewed.

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Results | Discussion | Conclusions | References ]

S ome manufacturers claim 1,2 that their high viscosity condensable posterior composites can be successfully light-cured in up to 5-mm-thick increments. The maximum recommended curing depth for a conventional composite (e.g., Z100, 3M Dental, St. Paul, MN]) is 2 mm to 2.5 mm. 3 As light passes through composite, the light is absorbed or scattered and the light intensity is reduced as the composite thickness increases. It has been previously reported 4,5 that the composite-dentin bond strength decreases as the amount of light energy decreases. Consequently, if insufficient light passes through a 5-mm increment of composite, then the composite-dentin bond may be reduced. Single Bond (3M Dental, St. Paul, MN), Bond 1 (Jeneric/Pentron, Wallingford, CT) and Solo (Kerr Corporation, Orange, CA) dentin bonding systems (DBS) can generate 24-hour shear bond strengths greater than 18 MPa, 6-8 but the composite specimens were not polymerized in a 5-mm increment. Also, gelatin capsules were used, allowing additional light to reach the resin-dentin interface from the sides of the capsule and thereby increasing the bond strength.

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